Until 2013, psychiatry broke down schizophrenia into different types. These included paranoid schizophrenia, catatonic schizophrenia, childhood schizophrenia, hebephrenic (disorganized) schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder, which combined the symptoms of schizophrenia with those of a mood disorder.
With the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder 5th edition (DSM-V), these sub-types were eliminated because they had low reliability and did not help provide clients with better treatment.
The DSM-V also changed the criteria for a diagnosis of schizophrenia. One change was the elimination of bizarre delusions as a requirement. A second change was that a diagnosis of schizophrenia no longer depended on the presence of hearing at least two voices during an auditory hallucination.
Further, to receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia it was necessary to have at least one of the following symptoms without another diagnosis (such as bipolar psychosis): auditory or visual hallucinations, delusional thinking, and disorganized speech.
Many scientists think schizophrenia is many illnesses rather than just one. Certainly, it presents a variety of symptoms that must be treated.
Antipsychotic medications help mitigate delusions and hallucinations. First generation (typical or conventional) antipsychotics include drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), Halperidol (Haldol), Perphenazine (Trilafon), Thiothixene (Navane) and others. Newer, second generation (atypical) antipsychotics include aripiprazole (Abilify), lurasidone (Latuda), olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), ziprasidone (Geodon), quetiapine (Seroquel) and more.
Clozapine (Clozaril) is the only FDA-approved antipsychotic medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. A psychiatrist must be approved to prescribe clozapine and monthly blood work is required. The Centre for Counseling of Aventura is authorized to treat clients with clozapine.
Other medications involved in the treatment of schizophrenia might include antidepressants, anti-anxiety medications, and sleep aids.